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Moyle, Lachlan R. Drawing Conclusions. An imagological survey of Britain and the British and Germany and the Germans in German and British cartoons and caricatures, 1945–2000. Dr. (Diss.), Universität Osnabrück, Fachbereich Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft 2005 (336 S.). 
Added by: joachim (14 Nov 2011 15:12:24 UTC)   Last edited by: joachim (15 Nov 2011 09:49:41 UTC)
Resource type: Thesis/Dissertation
Languages: englisch
BibTeX citation key: Moyle2005
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Categories: General
Keywords: Cartoon, Deutschland, Großbritannien, Imagologie, Interkulturalität, Karikatur, Randformen des Comics, Stereotypen
Creators: Moyle
Publisher: Universität Osnabrück (Osnabrück)
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Attachments   URLs   http://repositoriu ... gbv:700-2005020415
Abstract
Vicissitudes in the British-German relationship since the Second World War have been reflected in the social and political cartoons produced and published in Britain and Germany referring to the other and the European and international context of their relationship. This survey focuses primarily on press cartoons, analysing and interpreting their content along imagological lines. National stereotypes, symbols, and other imagery are identified and their origins, uses, and possible meanings investigated. The research shows that British cartoonists have often had easy recourse to imagery drawn from and connected with twentieth-century military conflicts and the experience of National Socialism, which they have been loathe to set aside even after fifty years of peace. Such imagery has come particularly to the fore during periods of tension between the two countries. On the other hand, German cartoonists have generally relied upon an older and less provocative palette of imagery. Towards the end of the twentieth century and after reunification, the German caricatural depiction of Britain and the British became less circumspect, with evidence of a sharper and more critical approach. Significant themes and topics in the depiction of the ‘other’ are also identfied, such as each country’s position within the European Community, and their treatment is charted.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements (I)
Abbreviations used in the text (III)

0 INTRODUCTION (1)
0.1 Aim (1)
0.2 Hypothesis and analytical approach (2)
0.3 Textual focus (2)
0.3.1 Limitations (4)
0.4 Sources of material (5)
0.5 The sample (6)
0.6 Context of research (6)
0.7 Form and language usage (7)

1 IMAGOLOGY – CONCEPTS AND APPROACH (9)
1.0 Introduction (9)
1.1 Image Studies (9)
1.2 The imagological approach (10)
1.3 Imagological concepts and their definitions (12)
1.3.1 Stereotype (12)
1.3.1.1 Development of stereotype theory (13)
1.3.1.2 Towards a contemporary definition of ‘stereotype’ (15)
1.3.1.3 In- and out-groups: hetero- and autostereotypes (16)
1.3.1.4 National stereotypes (18)
1.3.1.5 A working definition (20)
1.3.2 Prejudice (21)
1.3.3 Clichés (23)
1.3.4 The image of the enemy / Feindbild (24)
1.3.5 Image (25)
1.4 Rhetorical and aesthetic considerations (26)
1.5 In conclusion (28)

2 CARTOONS AND CARICATURE (29)
2.0 Introduction (29)
2.1 Definitions and typology (29)
2.1.1 Caricature (30)
2.1.2 Cartoon (33)
2.1.3 Cartoon typology (34)
2.2 Historical survey (35)
2.2.1 Preparing the ground (36)
2.2.2 The invention of portrait caricature (37)
2.2.3 The birth of the cartoon (38)
2.2.4 ‘The Golden Age’ in Britain (38)
2.2.5 L’âge d'or in France (40)
2.2.6 Punch and the Victorian Age (41)
2.2.7 The development of cartooning in Germany (43)
2.2.8 From the First to the Second World War (45)
2.2.9 German cartooning since 1945 (47)
2.2.10 British cartooning since 1945 (48)
2.2.11 In conclusion (49)
2.3 The nature of cartoons and caricature (51)
2.3.1 Image power: psychological impact (51)
2.3.2 Relation to reality and truth (52)
2.3.3 Cartoons as rhetoric (53)
2.3.4 Use of symbolism (55)
2.4 The function of cartoons and caricature as identified by commentators and cartoonists (57)
2.4.1 Entertainment (57)
2.4.2 In-group service (58)
2.4.3 Social and political criticism (59)
2.4.4 Watchdogs of democracy and public morality (61)
2.4.5 Informing and educating (62)
2.5 The cartoonist’s influence (63)
2.5.1 Evidence of history (63)
2.5.2 Creating images and sustaining myths (64)
2.5.3 Shaping opinions (65)
2.5.4 Reflecting and reinforcing (67)
2.5.5 In the medium (68)
2.6 Boundaries (71)
2.6.1 Libel, ethics, and taste (71)
2.6.2 Offensive behaviour (72)
2.6.3 Newspaper parameters (73)
2.6.4 Publish or perish (74)
2.7 Cartoons and print media (74)
2.7.1 The British press in profile (75)
2.7.2 The German press in profile (76)
2.7.3 The press cartoonist’s job (78)
2.7.4 Editorial input (79)
2.7.5 Part of the press package (80)
2.8 Stereotypes, cartoons and the media (81)
2.8.1 National stereotypes and cartoons (82)
2.8.2 ‘The cherished community’ (83)
2.9 In conclusion (84)

3 THE IMAGE OF GERMANY AND THE GERMANS IN BRITISH CARTOONS AND CARICATURE FROM 1945 (87)
3.0 Introduction (87)
3.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of Germany and the Germans to 1945 (88)
3.2 German stereotype content in British cartoons since 1945 (95)
3.2.1 General stereotypes: The adult, child, and family (96)
3.2.1.1 The man (96)
3.2.1.2 The woman (99)
3.2.1.3 The child and family (100)
3.2.2 The businessman (101)
3.2.3 The soldier/officer (102)
3.2.4 The (neo-)Nazi (103)
3.2.5 Locomotion (103)
3.2.6 Humour, food, and leisure (104)
3.2.7 Housing and geography (106)
3.2.8 Auto- and heterostereotype content (107)
3.2.9 Humorous and harmless, or serious and seditious? (110)
3.2.10 Conclusion (112)
3.3 Symbols (113)
3.3.1 Allegorical human figures (113)
3.3.1.1 Germania (114)
3.3.1.2 The Bavarian (117)
3.3.2 Historical figures (120)
3.3.2.1 Adolf Hitler (121)
3.3.2.2 Helmut Kohl (123)
3.3.3 Military symbolism (126)
3.3.3.1 The Prussian officer (126)
3.3.3.2 The simple soldier (128)
3.3.3.3 The spiked helmet (129)
3.3.3.4 The Iron Cross (131)
3.3.3.5 The Panzer (tank) (133)
3.3.4 Allegorical and animal figures (135)
3.3.4.1 The eagle (135)
3.3.4.2 The Dachshund (136)
3.3.5 Monuments (138)
3.3.5.1 The Berlin Wall (138)
3.3.6 Emblems (139)
3.3.6.1 National colours and the flag (139)
3.3.6.2 The swastika (140)
3.3.6.3 The deutschmark (142)
3.3.7 Symbolic phrases (144)
3.3.7.1 Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles (144)
3.3.7.2 Vorsprung durch Technik (145)
3.3.8 The beach towel (146)
3.3.9 Conclusion (148)
3.4 Principal cartoon themes (149)
3.4.1 Rearmament (149)
3.4.2 Neo-Naziism (151)
3.4.3 The military presence (152)
3.4.4 German national character: the Ridley-Chequers affair (154)
3.4.5 The Unification of East and West Germany (155)
3.4.6 Deutschmark versus sterling: re- and devaluation (157)
3.4.7 European issues: the BSE crisis and Monetary Union (158)
3.4.8 Conclusion (160)
3.5 ‘Once a German – Always a German!’: In summary (161)

4 THE IMAGE OF BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH IN GERMAN CARTOONS AND CARICATURE SINCE 1945 (165)
4.0 Introduction (165)
4.1 Historical overview: The cartoon image of Britain and the British to 1945 (168)
4.2 British stereotype content in German cartoons since 1945 (175)
4.2.1 General stereotypes (175)
4.2.1.1 The Englishman or ‘Britisher’ (175)
4.2.1.1.1 The umbrella (177)
4.2.1.1.2 The newspaper (177)
4.2.1.1.3 The bowler hat 178)
4.2.1.2 The woman (180)
4.2.2 Members of Parliament and Civil Servants (181)
4.2.3 The businessman (181)
4.2.4 The aristocrat (182)
4.2.5 The officer/soldier (183)
4.2.6 The bobby (184)
4.2.7 The Scott (185)
4.2.8 Locomotion (185)
4.2.9 The press (186)
4.2.10 Food, drink, leisure, and social behaviour (187)
4.2.11 Architecture, geography, and climate (188)
4.2.12 Auto- and heterostereotype content (188)
4.2.12.1 Deutscher Michel (190)
4.2.12.2 ‘As others see us’ (192)
4.2.13 Conclusion 193)
4.3 Symbols (194)
4.3.1 Allegorical human figures (194)
4.3.1.1 John Bull (194)
4.3.1.2 Britannia (198)
4.3.2 Historical figures (200)
4.3.2.1 The Queen (201)
4.3.2.2 Margaret Thatcher (204)
4.3.3 Allegorical animal figures (207)
4.3.3.1 The lion (207)
4.3.3.2 The bulldog (211)
4.3.4 Monuments and natural features (212)
4.3.4.1 ‘Big Ben’ (213)
4.3.5 Emblems (214)
4.3.5.1 The Union Jack (214)
4.3.6 Symbolic phrases (216)
4.3.6.1 ‘God save the Queen!’/ ‘God save our gracious Queen’ (216)
4.3.6.2 ‘Made in England’ (217)
4.3.7 Sporting symbolism: football (218)
4.3.8 Conclusion (220)
4.4 Principal themes (221)
4.4.1 Great Britain: the occupying and protecting power (221)
4.4.2 Joining the European club (222)
4.4.3 The Royal Family (224)
4.4.4 Britain in conflict (227)
4.4.4.1 Northern Ireland (228)
4.4.4.2 The Falklands War (229)
4.4.5 Thatcher’s approach to Europe and her Euro-sceptic legacy (231)
4.4.6 European Monetary Union (233)
4.4.7 The BSE crisis (235)
4.4.8 Thematic round-up (238)
4.5 Concluding observations (239)

5 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS (243)
5.0 Summary (243)
5.0.1 A unique place in the pantheon (243)
5.0.2 ‘An imbalance of affection’ 245
5.0.3 In perspective (247)
5.0.4 Don’t mention the war? (248)
5.0.5 Signs of change (250)
5.1 Outlook I: German and British stereotypes (252)
5.2 Outlook II: Cartooning in Britain and Germany (254)
5.3 Suggestions for further research (257)
Postscript (259)

Appendix: Biographical list of artists whose cartoons are discussed in the text (261)
Bibliography (297)
Added by: joachim  Last edited by: joachim
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