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Ahmad, Hafiz Aziz: The Impacts of Visuals of Manga on Indonesian Readers’ Psychological and Behavioral Reactions. Dr. phil. (Thesis), Chiba University, Design Psychology Unit, Department of Design Science, Graduate School of Engineering 2012 (122 S.). 
Added by: joachim (25 Nov 2013 13:12:44 UTC)   Last edited by: joachim (27 Mar 2014 11:10:14 UTC)
Resource type: Thesis/Dissertation
Languages: englisch
BibTeX citation key: Ahmad2012
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Categories: General
Keywords: Empirie, Indonesien, Kognition, Manga
Creators: Ahmad
Publisher: Chiba University (Chiba)
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Abstract
Derived from the curiosity relating the phenomenon on the emerging of Japanese manga’s influenced drawings among Indonesian youths, this thesis explores the relationship between attractive visuals appearance of manga and their subsequent behavior in imitating its visuals. Following the social cognitive theory on self-efficacy and behavior change, we developed a theoretical model of relationship between manga’s perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness in drawing similar visuals, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, which would lead toward positive attitude and behavioral intention in imitating its visuals. We then conducted exploratory experiments to assess the viability of the theoretical model by comparing participants’ subjective evaluation in term of their perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness and behavioral intention in imitating visuals of manga, non-manga and their own personal preferences. Results showed that manga excels in term of perceived attractiveness compare to non manga and there are significant relationships between perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness and behavioral intention aspects that support the viability of the developed model within manga that leads to the imitating behavior. We also found that manga produces consistent arousal,continually enforcing positive attitude and behavioral intention in imitating its visuals; a feature found lacking within non-manga. These results explain reasoning behind the aforementioned emerging phenomenon. Moreover, the thesis also proposes the method of eliciting participants’ subjective perceived attractiveness and behavioral intention to explore reasons behind emerging interests and behavior toward particular visual cultures.

Table of Contents

Declaration (i)
Acknowledgements (ii)
Summary in Japanese (v)
Abstract (vi)
Contents (vii)
Index of Figures and Tables (xi)

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION (1)
1.1. Introduction (1)
1.2. Impacts of Manga in Indonesia (2)
1.2.1. Manga’s booming popularity and sales (2)
1.2.2. The emerging of manga-inspired visuals (3)
1.2.3. The establishment of female comic readers and artists (4)
1.2.4. Controversies among Indonesian comic communities (4)
1.3. Manga Studies in Indonesia (5)
1.4. Initial Research Questions (6)
1.5. Research Objectives (6)
1.6. Research Approach and Methodology (7)
1.6.1. Stage one: Initial objectives and literature review (7)
1.6.2. Stage two: Eliciting Indonesian readers’ perception on manga (8)
1.6.3. Stage three: Developing theoretical model (8)
1.6.4. Stage four: Examining readers’ intention in imitating manga’s visuals (9)
1.6.5. Stage five: Research conclusions (9)
1.7. Potential Outcome of the Research (9)
1.8. Organization of the Thesis (10)

CHAPTER 2 EXPERIENCING MANGA (12)
PART 1: Defining Manga Visual Style (12)
2.1. Manga as a Distinctive Visual Style (12)
2.2. Manga as a Distinctive Visual Storytelling (15)
2.3. Summary of Part 1 (17)
PART 2: Understanding Manga Visual Attractiveness (17)
2.4. The Role of Cartoon and Sequential Images in Influencing Its Readers (17)
2.5. Reading and Understanding Manga (21)
2.6. Manga and the Sense of Engagement (23)
2.7. Summary of Part 2 (26)

CHAPTER 3 SHAPING BEHAVIOR THROUGH PERCEPTION (28)
3.1. Influences in the Process of Creation (28)
3.2. The Social Cognitive Theory (31)
3.3. The Role of Emotion (34)
3.4. Summary (35)

CHAPTER 4 STUDY ONE: QUESTIONNAIRE (37)
4.1. Introduction of Study (37)
4.2. Methodology (37)
4.2.1. Respondents (37)
4.2.2. Procedure (37)
4.2.3. Questionnaire (38)
4.3. Results (40)
4.3.1. Readers’ interaction history with manga (40)
4.3.2. Readers’ perception toward manga (40)
4.3.3. Readers’ behavior in imitating visuals of manga (46)
4.4. Discussion (49)
4.4.1. Emotional factors in manga acceptance among Indonesian readers (49)
4.4.2. Readers and manga visual attractiveness (53)
4.4.3. Manga’s impact toward readers’ drawing preferences (54)
4.5. Summary (57)

CHAPTER 5 THEORETICAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESES (59)
5.1. Theoretical Model (59)
5.2. Hypotheses (61)

CHAPTER 6 STUDY TWO: EXPERIMENT (64)
6.1. Introduction of Study (64)
6.2. Methodology (64)
6.2.1. Participants (64)
6.2.2. Stimuli (65)
6.2.3. Design and measurements (68)
6.2.4. Questionnaire (70)
6.3. Experimental study (70)

CHAPTER 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (72)
7.1. Participants’ Familiarity toward Visual Stimuli (72)
7.2. Questionnaire’s Reliability (72)
7.3. Perceived Attractiveness Comparison between Manga and Non-manga (73)
7.3.1. Results (73)
7.3.2. Discussions (75)
7.4. Perceived Easiness Comparison between Manga and Non-manga (78)
7.4.1. Results (78)
7.4.2. Discussions (79)
7.5. Behavioral Intention Comparison between Manga, Non-manga and Readers’ Personal Preferences (81)
7.5.1. Results (81)
7.5.2. Discussions (83)
7.6. Relationships within Behavioral Intention in Imitating Visuals of Manga (84)
7.6.1. Results (85)
7.6.2. Discussions (87)
7.7. Additional Analyses (88)
7.7.1. Relationships within Behavioral Intention in Imitating Visuals of Non-manga (88)
7.7.2. Result comparisons between Manga and Non-manga (90)
7.7.3. Discussions on additional analyses (91)
7.8. Summary (92)

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION (94)
8.1. Conclusions (94)
8.2. Limitations and Future Propositions (97)

APPENDIX A: Study One Questionnaire (106)
APPENDIX B: Study Two Questionnaires (115)
1. Questionnaire for Perceived Attractiveness for Manga and Non-manga (115)
2. Questionnaire for Behavioral Intention for Manga and Non-manga (118)
3. Questionnaire for Behavioral Intention for Personal Visual Preferences (120)
4. Questionnaire for Participant’s Identity and Stimuli Interaction History (122)


  
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