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de Vries, Rudolf Willem: Comics and Co-evolutions. A Study of the Dynamics in the Niche of Comics Publishers in the Low Countries. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2012. (355 S.) 
Added by: joachim (31 Mar 2014 16:02:29 UTC)   
Resource type: Book
Languages: englisch
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 978-90-367-5804-8
BibTeX citation key: deVries2012
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Categories: General
Keywords: Belgien, Comic-Industrie, Niederlande, Soziologie, Verlagswesen
Creators: de Vries
Publisher: University of Groningen (Groningen)
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Attachments   URLs   http://irs.ub.rug.nl/ppn/352786264
Abstract
The idea behind this dissertation is testing the added value of combinations of concepts from already existing theories for organization studies. In this case this is done from an overarching, co-evolutionary perspective. The co-evolutionary theory offers insight into the long term interaction between organizations in the same industry, and the products developed by these organizations. Lacunas in this theory are filled up in this dissertation, by means of a study into publishers of comics in the Netherlands and Belgium. Firstly these lacunas concern the differences between societal identities, secondly the variety of organizations in the same branch, and thirdly the influence of individuals. More specifically, co-evolutionary research into cultural industries has hardly paid attention to the relationship between evolutions of the cultural supply and changes of value systems within organizations. On several levels drastic changes have taken place in the comics branch, which makes this industry a pre-eminent subject for co-evolutionary research. Concepts from organizational ecology, institutional logics and art sociology have been integrated for this purpose. Comics have developed into a multiform cultural medium. Simultaneously the interaction between artists and publishers, and the competition between publishers in both countries have led to a differentiated industrial branch. Historical processes and differences in identity have led to a stronger position for comics in Belgium than in the Netherlands. The dissertation illustrates that a confrontation between concepts from existing theories can lead to their improvement and nuance, as well as to a better understanding of contextual factors that influence the effectiveness of organizations.

Table of Contents

List of figures and tables (ix)
Abbreviations (xiii)

1 Introduction (1)
1.1 Background (1)
1.2 Organizational research on cultural industries in general and comics industries in particular (2)
1.3 Evolutions of comics and their industries (3)
1.4 Differences between countries with regard to evolutions of comics industries (5)
1.5 Introduction of the theoretical framework and research question (13)
1.6 Structure of the book (14)

2 Theoretical framework (15)
2.1 Introduction (15)
2.2 Combinations of theories (15)
2.2.1 Why combine theories? (15)
2.2.2 Conceptual marriages between rivaling theories: micro versus macro, voluntarism versus determinism (16)
2.2.3 Intertwinement of strategic and institutional processes (17)
2.2.4 Relationship between institutional and ecological dynamics (17)
2.2.5 Legitimacy (18)
2.2.6 ‘Old’ and neo-institutionalism (20)
2.3 The evolution of the co-evolutionary perspective (21)
2.4 Limitations of co-evolutionary research until now (24)
2.4.1 Diversity within evolutions (24)
2.4.2 Cross-societal comparison of institutions (24)
2.4.3 The role of individuals (24)
2.4.4 The values of art and culture for producers (25)
2.4.5 Conclusion (26)
2.5 Organizational ecology (27)
2.5.1 Introduction (27)
2.5.2 Resource partitioning theory (28)
2.5.3 Industrial Organization and OE (29)
2.5.4 Organizational form and niche identity (31)
2.6 Comparative historical institutionalism (34)
2.6.1 Introduction (34)
2.6.2 Societal effect (34)
2.6.4 Conclusion (36)
2.7 Institutional logics and art sociology: attention for the role of the individual, for values, and for art (37)
2.7.1 Institutional logics (37)
2.7.2 Art sociology (39)
2.7.3 Conclusion (43)
2.8 Towards a theoretical framework (44)
2.8.1 Introduction (44)
2.8.2 CP and OE compared (44)
2.8.3 Integration in one model of CP, OE, institutional logics and art sociology (46)

3 Methodology (55)
3.1 Introduction (55)
3.2 Database of comics and their publishers (56)
3.2.1 Introduction (56)
3.2.2 Limitations of the database (58)
3.2.3 Album or magazine? (59)
3.2.4 Checking the SDCN-database (62)
3.2.5 Additions and changes to the magazines-data in the original database (63)
3.2.6 Additions and changes to the album-data in theoriginaldatabase (63)
3.2.7 Data 1945–1998 (64)
3.2.8 Additional variables for the album publishers in the database (65)
3.2.8.1 Hit & run or real publisher (65)
3.2.8.1 Country of origin of the publisher (66)
3.3 Methodology for the ecological analyses (66)
3.4 Methodology for the case studies (67)
3.4.1 Introduction (67)
3.4.2 Selection criteria for the cases (69)
3.4.3 Selected cases (70)
3.4.4 Datacollection methods (71)
3.4.5 Protocol and topics for interviews (73)
3.4.6 Analyzing the data (74)
3.4.6.1 Within-case analysis (74)
3.4.6.2 Cross-case analysis; enfolding literature (76)
3.5 Methodology for the co-evolutionary analyses (77)
3.6 Conclusions (77)

4 Comics worlds and industries (79)
4.1 Introduction (79)
4.2 A concise historical overview of comics and their publishers in Belgium and The Netherlands (79)
4.2.1 Western comics in general (79)
4.2.2 Comics and comics publishers in Belgium and The Netherlands (82)
4.2.2.1 Belgium (82)
4.2.2.2 The Netherlands (85)
4.3 Dynamics of the population of Dutch language comics producers in general (87)
4.3.1 Introduction (87)
4.3.2 Overview of comics publications and their publishers (87)
4.3.3 Productivity of publishers (90)
4.3.4 Productivity of artists and scenarists (93)
4.3.5 Comics and their publishers in the period 1945–1998 (96)
4.3.6 Comic album publishers and country of origin 1945–1995 (102)
4.4 Conclusions (109)

5 The ecology of comics publishers (111)
5.1 Introduction (111)
5.2 Niche identity: de alio and de novo (111)
5.2.1 Introduction (111)
5.2.2 Methodology (113)
5.2.3 Findings (114)
5.2.4 Discussion and conclusions (116)
5.3 Entry analysis (118)
5.3.1 Introduction (118)
5.3.2 Entry analysis (119)
5.3.3 Methodology (123)
5.3.3.1 Data (123)
5.3.3.2 Dependent and independent variables: entries (dependent), density and C4 (independent) (124)
5.3.3.3 Control variables (126)
5.3.3.4 Method and models (130)
5.3.4 Findings (131)
5.3.4.1 Hypothesis 1A and 1B: 1945–1994 and 1905–1944 compared (models 1 and 2 in Table 5.4) (133)
5.3.4.2 Hypothesis 2: differences within post-war periods with regard to relation entries-C4 (model 3 in Table 5.4) (134)
5.3.5 Discussion and conclusions (136)
5.4 Exit-analysis (138)
5.4.1 Introduction (138)
5.4.2 Hazard of exit-analysis (138)
5.4.2.1 Introduction (138)
5.4.2.2 Nationality (139)
5.4.2.3 Product portfolio width (140)
5.4.2.4 Density delay (141)
5.4.3 Methodology (142)
5.4.3.1 Data (142)
5.4.3.2 Dependent and independent variables: exits (dependent), albums, artists, series, density in year of origin, Belgian and Dutch publisher (independent) (142)
5.4.3.3 Control variables (143)
5.4.3.4 Method and models (144)
5.4.3.5 Excursion: a demography of tenures (149)
5.4.4 Findings (153)
5.4.5 Discussion and conclusions (157
5.5 Conclusions (158)

6 Cases of publishers (161)
6.1 Introduction (161)
6.2 Propositions for the case analysis (162)
6.2.1 Resource partitioning, resource based view and inertia (162)
6.2.2 Values and organizational form (164)
6.2.3 Societal effect (165)
6.3 VNU (170)
6.3.1 Introduction (170)
6.3.2 Entry (171)
6.3.2.1 Conclusion (174)
6.3.3 Evolutions (174)
6.3.3.1 Magazines (174)
6.3.3.2 Albums (177)
6.3.4 Shifts in logics and value regimes (190)
6.3.5 Exit (195)
6.3.6 Conclusions (197)
6.4 Oog & Blik (198)
6.4.1 Introduction (198)
6.4.2 Entry (199)
6.4.3 Joost Swarte, O&B and the evolutions of comics (201)
6.4.3.1 Joost Swarte’s roles (201)
6.4.3.2 O&B’s evolutions (206)
6.4.4 (Shifts in) logics and values regimes (209)
6.4.5 ‘Exit’ by acquisition (209)
6.4.6 Conclusions (211)
6.5 Dupuis (211)
6.5.1 Introduction (211)
6.5.2 Entry (213)
6.5.2.1 Conclusion (215)
6.5.3 Evolutions (216)
6.5.3.1 The magazine (216)
6.5.3.2 Albums (223)
6.5.4 ‘Exit’ by acquisition: loss of independence, but the evolutions continue (226)
6.5.4.1 Phase 1: Albert Frère and Hachette: finally innovation (226)
6.5.4.2 Phase 2: Média Participations: definite loss of independence? (229)
6.5.5 Differences between Dupuis’ francophone and Dutch language market policy (230)
6.5.5.1 The magazine: Robbedoes (230)
6.5.5.2 The artists (233)
6.5.5.3 The albums (234)
6.5.6 Logics and value regimes (238)
6.5.7 Conclusions (239)
6.6 Bries (241)
6.6.1 Introduction (241)
6.6.2 Entry (242)
6.6.2.1 Conclusion (245)
6.6.3 Evolutions (246)
6.6.4 Logics and value regimes (252)
6.6.5 Conclusions (254)
6.7 Case analysis (255)
6.7.1 Introduction (255)
6.7.2 Capabilities of de alio and de novo publishers (255)
6.7.2.1 Dutch de alio: VNU (256)
6.7.2.2 Dutch de novo: Oog & Blik (257)
6.7.2.3 Belgian de alio: Dupuis (257)
6.7.2.4 Belgian de novo: Bries (258)
6.7.2.5 Conclusion and discussion (259)
6.7.3 Logics and value regimes within de alio and de novo publishers (261)
6.7.3.1 Dutch de alio: VNU (261)
6.7.3.2 Dutch de novo: Oog & Blik (261)
6.7.3.3 Belgian de alio: Dupuis (262)
6.7.3.4 Belgian de novo: Bries (262)
6.7.3.5 Conclusion and discussion (262)
6.7.4 Perception and selection (264)
6.7.4.1 Introduction (264)
6.7.4.2 Selection systems and the recognition of comics as art (265)
6.7.4.3 Producers, audiences and the recognition of comic albums as books (266)
6.7.5 Societal effect (268)
6.7.5.1 Introduction (268)
6.7.5.2 Role of the state I: support for comics (269)
6.7.5.3 Conclusion and discussion (269)
6.7.5.4 Role of the state II: strength of market regulation (271)
6.7.5.5 Conclusion and discussion (271)
6.7.5.6 Institutional distance (272)
6.7.5.7 Conclusion and discussion (273)
6.7.5.8 The impact of specific government measures (275)
6.7.5.9 Informal societal institutions: impact on publishers and on artists (276)
6.8 Conclusions (280)

7 Evolutions and co-evolutions (285)
7.1 Introduction (285)
7.2 Evolutions and co-evolutions (285)
7.2.1 Macro-level (285)
7.2.2 Micro-level (290)
7.2.3 Macro- and micro-level integrated (292)
7.2.4 Evolutions or co-evolutions (296)
7.3 Conclusions and discussion (298)
7.3.1 Conclusions (298)
7.3.2 Discussion (299)
7.3.2.1 Theoretical implications (299)
7.3.2.2 Limitations (307)
7.3.2.3 Future research (308)

Bibliography (311)

Appendices (329)
Appendix I List of interviewees (330)
Appendix II Stata data for entry analysis (Section 5.3, Table 5.4 Real publishers) (332)
Appendix III Evolutions at VNU (Section 6.3, 1950s) (338)
Appendix IV Evolutions at Oog & Blik (section 6.4, 1984–1995) (343)
Appendix V Evolutions at Dupuis (section 6.5, 1938–1940s) (346)
Appendix VI Evolutions at Bries (Section 6.6, 1985–2000) (350)

Samenvatting (Summary in Dutch) (355)


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